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Roman cement for the production of conservation mortars



Title: Roman cement for the production of conservation mortars
Author(s): D.C. Hughes, J. Weber, R. Kozlowski
Paper category : conference
Book title: 2nd Conference on Historic Mortars - HMC 2010 and RILEM TC 203-RHM final workshop
Editor(s): J. Válek, C. Groot and J.J. Hughes
Print-ISBN: None
e-ISBN: 978-2-35158-112-4
Publisher: RILEM Publications SARL
Publication year: 2010
Pages: 1043 - 1050
Total Pages: 8
Nb references: 20
Language: English


Abstract: Roman cement was patented in 1796 and used extensively throughout European architecture of the 19th and early 20th centuries before the domination of Portland cement and new architectural styles became established. It was characterised by a brown colour and a fast setting time, typically ~15 minutes. However, conservation of this architecture has received little attention and the former rich palette of cements is no longer available. Companion studies of historic mortars and the laboratory calcination of various raw materials have been undertaken. The historic mortars have been found to be both richer in cement than many modern mortars and generally utilised fine sands. Optimal cements have been produced at low temperatures, typically 750°C, and characteristic microstructural features of sub-optimal, optimal and super-optimal calcinations are described. Observation of these within the historic mortars indicates that the control of kiln temperatures was poor. Additionally, grinding of the historic cements did not always yield the grain sizes contained within contemporary specifications. The criteria for the production of Roman cements have been successfully re-established.


Online publication: 2010-10-25
Publication type : full_text
Public price (Euros): 0.00