239-MCM : On-site measurement of concrete and masonry structures by visualized NDT

Technical Committee 239-MCM

General Information

Chair: Prof. Masayasu OHTSU
Deputy Chair: Prof. Tomoki SHIOTANI
Activity starting in: 2010
Activity ending in: 2016

Subject Matter

Development of NDT (nondestructive testing) techniques for inspection is very active all over the world. In particular, one-site measurement of exisiting concrete and masonry structures is in heavy demand, because many structures are aged and deteriorated. For example, assessing the safety of the emblematic masonry buildings and masonry towers that characterize the World’s Cultural Heritage is a important problem. In order to formulate predictions on their stability and to estimate the safety, it is necessary to be able to identify damage signals and to determine their causes. In this regard, development and establishment of innovative and highly advanced NDT are necessary.
Acoustic emission (AE) and related NDE (nondestructive evaluation) techniques have been extensively studied in the previous TC 212-ACD (acoustic emission and related NDE techniques for crack detection and damage evaluation in concrete). The committee was set up in 2004, and was successfully finalized in 2009. Based on achievement of this TC, a follow-up committee is proposed.
So far, applications of NDT techniques to on-site measurements have been marginally successful, because each technique requires a particular analysis. In this regard, visualization and imaging of results are in great demand for practitioners and engineers for inspection. Accordingly, on-site measurements of concrete and masonry structures by NDT techniques are comprehensively studied, focussing on visualization procedure of the results measured. This could lead to fulfilment of recommended practices and manuals in RILEM.

Terms of reference

From the TC 212-ACD, one damage evaluation technique by AE, DeCAT procedure is being under review. In addition, AE application to corrosion detection in reinforced concrete is known to be promising. As a visualized technique of AE, SiGMA analysis is intensely studied in two institutes in Japan and Italy. So, these three techniques are investigated for visualization of the results. Recently, SIBIE analysis of the impact-echo technique is in progress. It can visually identify locations of delamination and void, depths of surface cracks and imperfectly grouted tendon-ducts. So, establishment of SIBIE technique is of concern, based on round-robin tests at members’ institutes. A computer tomography (CT) of ultrasonic pulse-velocity also allows visualization of internal defects in the structures and has been employed very successfully by members of the proposed committee. The radar technique is well known to be available for visualization of internal defects. Accordingly, these visualized NDT techniques are surveyed. After classifying techniques into proper objectives for on-site measurements, several round-robin tests are selected. Test results of NDE will be evaluated in terms of applicability, versatility, usefulness for practice. At the end of the term, some recommended practice on the selected techniques will be proposed to RILEM. The committee period necessary is estimated for 5 years.

Detailed working programme

- Literature survey and topical presentations
During each meeting, literature survey and associated presentations shall be planned. Subsequent literature will be also collected by members of the TC.

- State-of-the-art report
The results of the literature survey will be compiled in a state-of-the-art report or a final report. The report will also contain the experience in situ and on-site measurements carried out by members of the TC.

- Round robin testing
Round robin testing is useful to assess the capability of a test practise. In the case of one-site measurement in concrete structures, several techniques are prospective and available. Key techniques are selected by the members and round-robin tests will be conducted focussing the targets associated with applicability.

- Test evaluation
Recommended practices and manuals shall be evaluated, depending on targets by the members. The experience during the measurements will be evaluated and discussed. The aim is to select the most prospective method(s) for further detailing and development. - Recommendation
At the end of the evaluation and discussion of various round-robin tests, recommended practices will be prepared for standardized manuals. The recommendations shall be submitted for publication in Materials & Structures.

- Workshop
Several symposia and workshops are planned for presentation of the TC´s work and discussion of the recommended practices. It is hoped that other experts who are not member of the TC will contribute to the conferences planned. The RILEM recommendation could be associated with CEN or ISO as a pre-standard. The proceedings of the conferences shall be prepared, and possibly be published as the special issue of Materials & Structures.

- Literature
1. C. U. Grosse and M. Ohtsu (Eds.), Acoustic Emission Testing, Springer, 2008
2. Carpinteri A, Invernizzi S and Lacidogna G (2009) Historical Brick-Madsonry subjected to Double Flat-Jack Test: Acoustic Emission and Scale Effects on Crack Density, Construction and Building Materials 23:2813-2820.
3. Carpinteri A, Lacidogna G, Invernizzi S, Manuello A and Binda L (2009) Stability of the Vertical Bearing Structures of the Syracuse Cathedral: Experimental and Numerical Evaluation, Materials and Structures 42:877-888.
4. Suzuki T, Ohtsu M and Shigeishi M (2007) Relative Damage Evaluation of Concrete in a Road Bridge by AE Rate-Process Analysis, Materials and Structures, 40(2): 221-227
5. Ohtsu M, Uchida M, Okamoto T and Yuyama S (2002) Damage Assessment of Reinforceed Concrete Beams qualified by Acoustic Emission, ACI Structural Journal 99(4):411-417
6. Shiotani et al. (2004) Secondary AE Technique for Seismic Diagnosis of Railway Substructures, Progress in AE XII, 321-328
7. Shiotani et al. (2004) Evaluation of Reinforcement in Damaged Railway Concrete Piers by means of AE, Progress in AE XII, 419-426
8. Colombo S, Forde M C, Main I G, Halliday J and Shigeishi M (2005) AE Energy Analysis on Concrete Bridge Beams, Materials and Structures 38: 851-856
9. Colombo S, Forde M C, Main I G and Shigeishi M (2005) Predicting the Ultimate Bending Capacity of Concrete Beams from the"Relaxation Ratio" Analysis of AE Signals, Construction and Building Materials 19:746-754
10. Ohno K and Ohtsu M (2008) Comparison of Crack Classification in Concrete by Parameter Analysis and SiGMA in Acoustic Emission, Proc. Structural Faults and Repair 2008, 12th International Conference and Exhibition, Edinburgh, U. K. (CD-ROM)
11. Ohtsu M and Tomoda Y (2008) Phenomenological Model of Corrosion Process in Reinforced Concrete identified by Acoustic Emission, ACI Materials Journal, 105(2):194-199
12. Soulioti D, Barkoula N M, Paipetis A, Matikas T E, Shiotani T and Aggelis D G (2009) Acoustic Emission Behavior of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete under Bending, Construction and Building Materials, 23:3532-3536
13. Aggelis, D G and Shiotani, T (2007) Repair Evaluation of Concrete Cracks using Surface and Through-Transmission Wave Measurements, Cement and Concrete Composites, 29(9), 700-711.
14. Shiotani, T, Aggelis, D G, Momoki, S and Chai H (2009) Validation of the Wave Behaviour of Concrete Structures repaired by Cement Injection, Construction and Building Materials, 23(7), 2647-2652.
15. Carpinteri A, Lacidogna G and Pugno N (2007) Structural Damage Diagnosis and Life-Time Assessment by Acoustic Emission Monitoring, Engineering Fracture Mechanics 74: 273-289.

Technical environment

This is a follow-up committe of TC 212-ACD. Good links with TC 207-INR, TC 216-SAM, and TC 218-SFC are promised, because they all deal with NDT applications. In additrion, close working relations with ACI Committee 228 and JSCE Committee 339 are confirmed, because chairmen of these committees are key members of the proposed TC.

Expected achievements

The following achievements are promissingly expected and produced:

- RILEM recommendations and recommendded practises for on-site measurement by NDT
- Workshop proceedings, possible as a special issue of Materials & Structures.
- Training courses for one-site measurement by NDT
- Pre-standards to be submitted to ISO.

Group of users

Testing laboratories, Owers of infrastructure, Construction companies, and Universities.

Specific use of the results

NDT techniques are widely employed in concrete engineering for quality control of new structures and for inspection of old structures. Because aging and disaster could deteriorate concrete structures, the development of NDT techniques is in great demand for the safety and the economic impact. With the increasing need of validated NDT protocols, interpretation of NDT results is often requested. By makeing these results visualized and imaged, no interpretation is necessary. In this regard, the proposed TC is in good demad for RILEM society.

Active Members

  • Dr. Dimitrios AGGELIS
  • Dr. Ninel ALVER
  • Dr Hwa Kian CHAI
  • Dr. Simona FONTUL
  • Prof. Michael C. FORDE
  • Prof. Dr.-Ing. Christian U. GROSSE
  • Prof. Toshiro KAMADA
  • Dr. Yoshikazu KOBAYASHI
  • Dr. Markus KRÜGER
  • Dr Giuseppe LACIDOGNA
  • Dr Andrzej MOCZKO
  • Dr. Kentaro OHNO
  • Prof. Masayasu OHTSU
  • Dr Aljosa SAJNA
  • Prof. Mitsuhiro SHIGEISHI
  • Prof. Tomoki SHIOTANI
  • Dr. Tetsuya SUZUKI
  • Prof. Thomas VOGEL
  • Dr Takeshi WATANABE
  • Dr. Shigenori YUYAMA