261-CCF : Creep behavior in Cracked Sections of Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Technical Committee 261-CCF

General Information

Chair: Prof. Pedro SERNA ROS
Deputy Chair: Dr. Sergio Henrique PIALARISSI CAVALARO
Activity starting in: 2014

Subject Matter

Over the past few years, there has been a significant effort in the research, development and application of Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC). This has been facilitated by the work of the many research groups and technical committees (such as RILEM 162-TDF) and the introduction of FRC in major national or international codes of structural Concrete (ACI 318, MC 2010, EC2, among others).

However, the long-term behavior of FRC under sustained load is still a controversial topic in both scientific and in technical forums. A proof of this are the papers presented at the last RILEM BEFIB 2012 Conference in Guimaraes. Currently, more than 15 research groups in the world are working on the subject and interest has been very strong in the business field. The research focus is mainly on the influence of the type of fiber, of fiber-concrete bond and of environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity.

The study of the creep response of cracked FRC is essential to ensure the viability of structural applications of FRC and has important consequences on structural durability and safety. One of the main problems that has complicated the development of guidelines or models to consider this phenomenon lies in the absence of a standardized testing methodology to quantify creep in FRC, and the work conducted by different groups employs different procedures, leading to results and conclusions that are difficult to compare or to generalize. Consequently, to obtain comparable results and to achieve a sufficiently large database to propose models applicable in the structural design, it is of the outmost importance to unify the methods and the criteria for the assessment of creep in FRC.

In recent meetings, the FIB TG 8.3 discussed the possibility of working on the issue of creep in cracked FRC elements as a specific topic. The same concern was raised at the CEN TC 250/SC2/WG1/TG2. However no committee was formed with that intention given that it was considered that the ideal framework for such proposal would be RILEM.

The main objectives of the committee are:

(1) - To coordinate research efforts and compile the results of studies into mechanisms of creep behavior of FRC.

(2) - Evaluate the structural repercussions of the phenomenon, analyzing elements subjected to sustained load in which creep may represent a problem.

(3) - Propose unified test methods to determine the parameters characterizing creep behavior and to assess the feasibility of those test methods, clarifying the criteria to analyze the test results.

(4) - Analyze the variables that influence creep behavior of cracked sections of FRC (including composition and properties of concrete; dosage and fiber type, external conditions of work and stress level) 

(5) - Develop practical recommendations and design criteria for structural elements subjected to this phenomenon.

In summary, the aim is to collect all available information and knowledge, as well as to coordinate on-going research efforts to ultimately produce a state-of-the-art report and RILEM recommendations. The objectives of the TC should be achieved within 4 working years.

Terms of reference

The scope of the TC may be considered new since there is no active national, regional and international associations (fib, ACI, IABSE, etc) working on the topic. 

The members of the TC are recognized experts in the topic from several parts of the world. This way it will be possible to reach a consensus that takes into account the different practices and standards, as well as their respective spheres of influence, including ISO, EN and ASTM standards.

Detailed working programme

The work of the TC will initially focus on bringing together the expertise and knowledge of all participating members.

In this context, the TC will simultaneously address the following:

Activity. 1 - Organization of a RILEM workshop:

In the first year, the committee will focus on the organization of a RILEM Workshop. The tentative time for the workshop should be the end of 2015 or the beginning of 2016. The aim is to prepare a document / publication that collects updated observations and results on the topic. 

Activity. 2 - Compilation of State-of-the-Art Report:

An overview of FRC creep behavior will be compiled. The outcome of this work will be a state-of-the-art report including critical ideas or agreements, calculation criteria and recommendations for the practitioner. 

Activity 3.Definition of standard test methods.:

The decision on whether one or several proposals (depending on objectives or applications, for instance: tunneling, structural elements), to be assessed will be a result of Activity 3.

A series of round-robin tests is expected to be performed in order to compare different test methods or real applications. 

Technical environment

This TC will focus specifically on the creep behavior of FRC, complementing the work from other TCs. In fact, it may be considered a natural derivation of previous Technical working groups devoted to FRC. It holds a logical relationship with the FIB TG 8.3 and RILEM TC 162, both lead by Prof. L. Vandewalle as the immediate precedent. FIB TG 8.3 analyzed FRC as a whole and has promoted the introduction of FRC into the MC 2010. Also the CEN TC 250/SC2/WG1/TG2 led by Prof M. Di Prisco is working to introduce FRC in the Eurocodes.

The work will be carried out in connection with national or multi-national local groups involving practitioners.

Expected achievements

- International RILEM workshop.

- State-of-the-art report

- Standard test method proposals

Dissemination of Results

- STAR and Recommendations in Materials and Structures or as a separate book'

- At the end of the TC tenure: publication of a final report summarizing the main results and the general conclusions

- A dedicated RILEM workshop.


Group of users

The targeted users are researchers, practitioners and standardization bodies in the field of concrete technology.

Specific use of the results

The results will increase the knowledge on long term behavior of FRC and support methods to quantify this behaviour. They will also help create a consensus on issues like the risk of using FRC or the influence of the type of fiber on the long-term performance.

Through local national or multi-national groups, practitioners will be encouraged to implement the TC’s results in their respective countries until the adoption of national or international standards.

Knowledge transfered from the RILEM TC into academics and research is expected to affect the design procedures of FRC structures. Furthermore, the safety and reliability of engineering structures constructed with the material can be improved, thus contributing to the rational and optimized use of FRC in different applications.

Active Members

  • Dr. Bryan BARRAGAN
  • Dr. Stefan BERNARD
  • Prof. William Peter BOSHOFF
  • Dr. Nicola BURATTI
  • Todd CLARKE
  • Prof. Marco DI PRISCO
  • Dr. Ravindra GETTU
  • Dr. Catherine LARIVE
  • Prof. Claudio MAZZOTTI
  • Dr. Sandro MORO
  • Dr. Tomoya NISHIWAKI
  • ir. Benoit PARMENTIER
  • Dr. Sergio Henrique PIALARISSI CAVALARO
  • Prof. Giovanni PLIZZARI
  • Dr. Klaus-Alexander RIEDER
  • M. Damien ROGAT
  • Dr. Pierre ROSSI
  • Prof. Pedro SERNA ROS
  • Prof. Romildo D. TOLEDO FILHO
  • Prof. Dr. Ir. Lucie VANDEWALLE
  • Gerhard VITT
  • ir. Rutger VRIJDAGHS
  • Sébastien WOLF
  • Prof. Raul ZERBINO