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Proceedings pro012 : International RILEM Workshop on Historic Mortars: Characteristics and Tests Paisley, Scotland (1999)


Title: International RILEM Workshop on Historic Mortars: Characteristics and Tests
Paisley, Scotland (1999)
Edited by P. Bartos, C. Groot and J. J. Hughes
ISBN: 2-912143-15-2
e-ISBN: 2351580273
Pages: 460
Publication date: 1999

The return to traditional materials and techniques, within present-day technical and economic circumstances, revealed large gaps in factual knowledge, which often relied on fragmented historical records and a lack of understanding of fundamental processes underlying good performance of existing historic and new "traditional" mortars. A very strong demand has developed for an improved guidance for conservation practitioners, outlining good practice and underpinned by sound scientific and technical knowledge. Formation of the RILEM Technical Committee TC 167-COM on "Characterisation of old mortars with respect to their repair" in 1996 under the chairmanship of Dr Caspar Groot reflected this demand.
The Workshop differed substantially from other events in the built heritage field, which usually bring together only one of the several, often narrow sectors relevant to conservation. In Paisley, the participants reflected the great diversity and complex interdisciplinary activity, which prevails in the built heritage field. The event brought together art historians, conservation architects, custodians of historic buildings and monuments, structural engineers, geologists, material scientists, chemists and physicists, expert conservation craftsmen, specialist contractors and suppliers of mortar-related materials. Presentations, in a balanced manner, varied from applications of fundamental theory supported by atomic science and mathematical modelling to practical expertise in re-creation of ancient and traditional techniques and skills for production, handling of mortar and repair of historic masonry. The role of mortar was also rationally developed, from its the very beginning when dry-laid stone walls still prevailed in "pre-history" to sophisticated masonry, plasters and renders of recent centuries. There were vigorous discussions after each of the Sessions and the social events provided opportunities for further, more personal exchange of views and opinions. A review of the most significant contributions and conclusions stemming from the discussions is provided in the final chapter of this book.


Contents


Preface
Author(s): P.J.M. Bartos
Pages: XI - XIII

RILEM Technical Committee TC 167-COM Members
Author(s): P.J.M. Bartos
Pages: XIV - XIV

Organising Committee
Author(s): P.J.M. Bartos
Pages: XV - XV

Part one: Introduction


The use of lime mortars in the context of dry stone build
Author(s): I. Maxwell
Pages: 3 - 13

Part two: Sampling and assessment of damage


Practical sampling of historic mortars
Author(s): J.J. Hughes, K. Callebaut
Pages: 17 - 26

Damage diagnosis and compatible repair mortars
Author(s): P.J. van Hees
Pages: 27 - 35

Examination of hydraulic lime mortars of medieval churches in Denmark
Author(s): H.D. Andersen, H.D. Zimmermann, H. Friis, U. Schnell
Pages: 37 - 42

Salt damage to the medieval plaster on a vault in Fanefjord church
Author(s): P.K. Larsen
Pages: 43 - 50

Part three: Mortar characterisation schemes


Chemical-mineralogical and physical-mechanical investigations of old mortars
Author(s): B. Middendorf, G. Baronio, K. Callebaut, J. Hughes
Pages: 53 - 59

Procedure for a mortar type identification: a proposal
Author(s): K. van Balen, E.-E. Toumbakari, M.-T. Blanco, J. Aguilera, F. Puertas, C. Sabbioni, G. Zappia, C. Riontino, G. Gobbi
Pages: 61 - 70

A new protocol for the analysis of historic cementitious materials: Interim report
Author(s): E. Goins
Pages: 71 - 79

Proposal for a useful methodology for the study of ancient mortars
Author(s): G. Martinet, B. Quenee
Pages: 81 - 91

Part four: Chemical and mineralogical characterisation


Hydraulicity in lime mortars revisited
Author(s): A.E. Charola, F.M.A. Henriques
Pages: 95 - 104

Analysis of mortars containing pozzolanas
Author(s): C. Bläuer Böhm
Pages: 105 - 112

Petrographical, mineralogical and chemical characterisation of lime mortars in the saint-Michael's church (Leuven, Belgium)
Author(s): K. Callebaut, W. Viaene, K. van Balen, R. Ottenburgs
Pages: 113 - 123

Historical and scientific study of hydraulic mortars from the 19th century
Author(s): K. Callebaut, J. Elsen, K. van Balen, W. Viaene
Pages: 125 - 132

Analysis of mortars (to include historic mortars) by differential thermal analysis
Author(s): P.R. Ellis
Pages: 133 - 147

Environmental effects of SO2 on hydraulic mortars
Author(s): M.T. Blanco-Varela, J. Aguilera, F. Puertas, A. Palomo, C. Sabbioni, C. Riontino, G. Zappia, O. Favoni, K. van Balen, E.E. Toumbakari
Pages: 149 - 159

Part five: Physical characterisation and testing


Plasticity, water retention, soundness and sand carrying capacity: what a mortar needs
Author(s): M.L. Thomson
Pages: 163 - 171

A relationship between hydraulicity and permeability of hydraulic lime
Author(s): P.F.G. Banfill, A.M. Foster
Pages: 173 - 183

Portable probe gas permeametry in the testing of historic masonry and mortars
Author(s): J. Valek, J.J. Hughes, P.J.M. Bartos
Pages: 185 - 196

Effects of ageing on lime putty
Author(s): E.F. Hansen, A. Tagle, E. Erder, S. Baron, S. Connell, C. Rodriguez-Navarro, K. van Balen
Pages: 197 - 206

X-ray diffraction and enviromental electron microscopy of hydrated limes
Author(s): G.C. Allen, K.R. Hallam, M. Radonjic, N.J. Elton, M. Farey, J. Ashurst
Pages: 207 - 215

Thermal strains in repointed masonry: preliminary investigations using ESPI
Author(s): A.T. Vermeltfoort, C.J.W.P. Groot, E. Wijen
Pages: 217 - 226

Experimental study on the mechanical role of thick mortar joints in reproduced byzantine masonry
Author(s): L. Binda, G. Baronio, C. Tedeschi
Pages: 227 - 247

Moisture transfer at interfaces of porous materials: measurements and simulations
Author(s): W. Depraetere, J. Carmeliet, H. Hens
Pages: 249 - 259

Spalling of historic mortars: a numerical model
Author(s): M. Drdácký, M.J. Válek, P.P. Procházka
Pages: 261 - 270

Part six: Properties, composition and specification of new mortars


Mortar analysis and repair specification in the conservation of Scottish historic buildings
Author(s): A.B. Leslie, P. Gibbons
Pages: 273 - 280

Traditional craftmanship in modern mortars - Does it work in practice?
Author(s): K. Fischer
Pages: 281 - 285

Lime based mortars for restoration of historical mortars especially under wall paintings
Author(s): D. Michoinová
Pages: 287 - 295

Durability of lime-based mortars in a severe climate - Results from field and artificial ageing tests
Author(s): A.M. Waldum, O. Anda
Pages: 297 - 306

Mechanical and physical behaviour of lime mortars reproduced after the characterisation of historic mortar
Author(s): G. Baronio, L. Binda, A. Saisi
Pages: 307 - 325

Properties and durability of air lime-based mortars for limestone repairs on monuments
Author(s): P. Bromblet
Pages: 327 - 337

A comparative study of hydraulic lime-based mortars
Author(s): J.M. Teutonico, G. Ashall, E. Garrod, T. Yates
Pages: 339 - 349

The use of brick dust as pozzolanic addition to hydraulic lime mortars
Author(s): D.C. Hughes, D.B. Sugden
Pages: 351 - 359

Contribution to pointing mortar durability
Author(s): A.H.P. Maurenbrecher, G.T. Suter, K. Trischuk, L. Fontaine
Pages: 361 - 369

A new generation of cement-based renderings: an alternative to traditional lime-based mortars?
Author(s): E. Marie-Victoire, P. Bromblet
Pages: 371 - 393

Methodology for the design of injection grouts for consolidation of ancient masonry
Author(s): E.-E. Toumbakari, D. van Gemert, T.P. Tassios
Pages: 395 - 405

Dispersed hydrated lime: development and production, techniques and applications
Author(s): R. Strotmann
Pages: 407 - 411

Part seven: Case studies


A mortar's study for the Cantaber's house of Conimbriga, Portugal
Author(s): A. Cardoso
Pages: 415 - 423

A case study: mortar analysis at Pigeon Island National Landmark and Morne Fortune, St. Lucia, West Indies, interim report
Author(s): S. Sass
Pages: 425 - 434

Study of the traditional method of lime slaking and lime products making in Beijing, China
Author(s): C. Liu
Pages: 435 - 439

Part eight: Concluding summary


Historic mortars: characteristics and tests - Concluding summary and state-of-the-art
Author(s): C.J.W.P. Groot, P.J.M. Bartos, J.J. Hughes
Pages: 443 - 454