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Proceedings pro019 : 2nd International RILEM Workshop on Testing and Modelling the Chloride Ingress into Concrete


Title: 2nd International RILEM Workshop on Testing and Modelling the Chloride Ingress into Concrete
Edited by C. Andrade and J. Kropp
ISBN: 2-912143-22-5
e-ISBN: 2351580338
Pages: 516
Publication date: 2000

From the first workshop on Chloride Penetration in Concrete organised by RILEM in October 1995 a lot of new information has been generated in this field of research.
Numerous papers have been published presenting the development of the basic solution (so named "errror function") of Fick's second law and its application to predict the time to depassivation of the steel reinforcement. However, new evidences from results on existing structures indicate that real behaviour does not follow always this kind of modelling and that, much more work is necessary, if the basic knowledge generated in the laboratory is liked to be used in the calculation of service life of concrete structures.

This second workshop has provided a platform for an exchange in on-going research and development in the field of modelling the performance of reinforced concrete structures under the attack of chloride ions. Amongst the various damage mechanisms related to chloride attack the workshop focused in problems of corrosion of reinforcements.
It was structured in four parts:
1) Description of the fundamental processes of chloride penetration into concrete.
2) Model the chloride ingress into concrete.
3) Testing of the chloride transport parameters.
4) Chloride threshold concentration.


Contents


Foreword
Pages: XI - XII

Session I-A: Chloride binding


About the interaction of chloride and hardened cement paste
Author(s): O. Wowra, M.J. Setzer
Pages: 3 - 12

Changes in the chloride binding ability of concrete submitted to non-steady-state migration experiments in comparison with natural diffusion
Author(s): M. Castellote, C. Andrade, C. Alonso
Pages: 13 - 22

Influence of cementitious materials mixing factors and cement composition on chloride-binding isotherms
Author(s): S. Care, T. Chaussadent
Pages: 23 - 32

µMembrane potential and its influence on chloride transport in cementitious materials
Author(s): J.-Z. Zhang, N.R. Buenfeld
Pages: 33 - 49

Change of the transport number of chloride ions in a migration test for concrete
Author(s): T. Sugiyama
Pages: 51 - 65

Session I-B: Chloride concentration profiles in real structures


Chloride ingress data from field exposure in a Swedish road environment
Author(s): L.-O. Nilsson, A. Andersen, T. Luping, P. Utgenannt
Pages: 69 - 83

Chloride ingress data from Danish and Swedish road bridges exposed to splash from de-icing salt
Author(s): A. Lindvall, A. Andersen, L.-O. Nilsson
Pages: 85 - 103

Chloride ingress data from five years fild exposure in a Swedish marine environment
Author(s): T. Luping, A. Andersen
Pages: 105 - 119

Several years study on chloride ion penetration into concrete exposed to Atlantic Ocean water
Author(s): C. Andrade, J.L. Sagrera, M.A. Sanjuán
Pages: 121 - 134

Statistical analysis of the diffusiion ceoffecients measured in the piles of maracaibo's bridge
Author(s): D. Izquierdo, C. Andrade, O. de Rincón
Pages: 135 - 149

Modelling of chloride ingress in Tasmanian bridges
Author(s): R. McGee
Pages: 149 - 159

Chloride penetration into concrete with lightweight aggregates
Author(s): J.E. Carlsen
Pages: 161 - 171

Transport of chlorides through non-saturated concrete after an initial limited chloride supply
Author(s): M.A. Climent, G. de Vera, J. López, C. García, C. Andrade
Pages: 173 - 187

Simulated de-icing salt exposure of blended cement concrete - Chloride penetration
Author(s): R.B. Polder
Pages: 189 - 202

Chloride migration coefficients from non-steady-state migration experiments at environment-friendly "Green" concrete
Author(s): C. Edvardsen, M.T. Jepsen
Pages: 203 - 209

Saline absorption in calcium silicate brick
Author(s): L. Pel, K. Kopinga, H.P. Huinink, E.F. Kaasschieter
Pages: 211 - 221

Session II: Modelling chloride ingress and service life prediction


Time-dependent diffusivities: possible misinterpretation
Author(s): D.P. Bentz, X. Feng, R.D. Hooton
Pages: 225 - 233

Prediction of the chloride diffusion coefficient in concrete using the homogenization technique
Author(s): S. Caré, E. Hervé
Pages: 235 - 246

Multi-species transport in saturated cement-based materials
Author(s): O. Truc, J.P. Ollivier, L.O. Nilsson
Pages: 247 - 259

A numerical model for combined diffusion and convection of chloride in non-saturated concrete
Author(s): L.O. Nilsson
Pages: 261 - 275

Probabilistic, performance based service life design of concrete structures - Environmental actions and response
Author(s): A. Lindvall
Pages: 277 - 289

Effect of exposure solution on chloride penetration test methods
Author(s): T. Luping, O. Truc
Pages: 291 - 303

Current development and verification of the numerical model ClinConc for predicting chloride penetration into concrete
Author(s): T. Luping, L.O. Nilsson
Pages: 305 - 316

The HETEK model of chloride ingress into concrete made simpler by approximations
Author(s): J.M. Frederiksen, L. Mejlbro, E. Poulsen
Pages: 317 - 336

On a model of chloride ingress into concrete exposed to de-icing salt containing chloride
Author(s): L. Mejlbro, E. Poulsen
Pages: 337 - 354

On an empirical model for estimation of chloride ingress into concrete
Author(s): J.M. Frederiksen, M. Geiker
Pages: 355 - 371

Sodium chloride diffusion coupled with freezing and thawing cycles in saturated concrete: a macroscopic thermodynamic approach of concrete scaling
Author(s): T. Fen-Chong, P. Dangla, O. Coussy, T. Chaussadent
Pages: 373 - 382

Impediments to the application of marine concrete durability models in design
Author(s): N.P. Lee, D.H. Christholm
Pages: 383 - 393

Session III: Chloride threshold concentration


Chloride threshold values for service life design
Author(s): J.M. Frederiksen
Pages: 397 - 414

Dependence of chloride threshold with the electrical potential of reinforcements
Author(s): C. Alonso, M. Castellote, C. Andrade
Pages: 415 - 425

Session IV: Evaluation of test methods


Determinationof total and free chloride in cement paste and concrete
Author(s): J. Tritthart, K. Cavlek
Pages: 429 - 437

Reliability of laboratory techniques for chloride analysis of reinforced concrete structures
Author(s): J. Gulikers
Pages: 439 - 450

Practical considerations for rapid chloride conductivity testing
Author(s): J.R. Mackechnie, M.G. Alexander
Pages: 451 - 459

Determination of the chloride diffusion coefficients in steady state by migration test based on conductivity measurements
Author(s): M. Castellote, C. Andrade, C. Alonso
Pages: 461 - 470

Evaluation of chloride penetration into concrete by various methods
Author(s): D. Henry, V. Baroghel Bouny, T. Chaussadent
Pages: 471 - 486