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Proceedings pro063 : RILEM TC 211-PAE Final Conference on Concrete in Aggresive Aqueous Environments - Performance, Testing and Modeling


Title: RILEM TC 211-PAE Final Conference on Concrete in Aggresive Aqueous Environments - Performance, Testing and Modeling
Edited by M.G. Alexander and A. Bertron
ISBN: 978-2-35158-071-4
e-ISBN: 978-2-35158-082-0
Pages: 631
Publication date: 2009

Concrete and cement-based materials increasingly must operate in aggressive aqueous environments, either natural or industrial in origin, in which these materials are subjected to processes of degradation whereby ion addition and exchange reactions occur, leading to a breakdown of the matrix microstructure and a weakening of the material. Sometimes this degradation can be extremely rapid and serious, such as in acidic environments, while in other cases degradation occurs over long periods. Consequences of material failure are usually severe – such failures adversely affect the well-being of human communities and disturb ecological balances. There are also large direct costs of maintaining and replacing deteriorated infrastructure, and indirect costs from suspension of production during maintenance work, which place a great burden on society.

The focus of RILEM TC 211-PAE was on addressing issues concerning performance of cement-based materials in aggressive aqueous environments. The TC’s objectives were the consideration of the scientific nature of the problem, and also an attempt to provide engineering approaches to addressing these problems in practice. It sought to furnish an understanding of concrete performance over a broad range of environments in terms of fundamental mechanisms and processes. The TC also sought to take a critical approach to existing standards, with a view to providing a framework within which improved standards and guidelines could be written.

The proceedings in these two volumes represent the papers and reports presented at the closing conference of RILEM TC 211-PAE, held in Toulouse, France, in June 2009. The papers were organized in 4 sessions, matching the different tasks of the 211-PAE working groups: (1) degradation mechanisms, (2) modeling, (3) test methods and (4) performances of materials. They represent contributions over a wide range of environments - sewage systems, ground waters, natural waters, rainwater, marine environments, agro-industrial media, chemical industries - and aggressive agents - sulphates, strong and weak acids, microorganisms, etc. All the papers were rigorously peer-reviewed by experts, primarily members of the technical committee who have specific expertise in the areas considered. These conference volumes will be a valuable addition to the literature on these subjects.


Contents


Preface
Author(s): M. Alexander, A. Bertron
Pages: XVII - XVIII

Volume 1 - Session 1: Degradation mechanisms


Keynote paper: The thermodynamics of attack on Portland cement with special reference to sulfate
Author(s): F.P. Glasser
Pages: 3 - 17

Sulfate attack on concrete - Solution concentration and phase stability
Author(s): W. Müllauer, R.E. Beddoe, D. Heinz
Pages: 18 - 27

Influence of sulphate solution concentration on the performance of cementitious materials during external sulphate attack
Author(s): R. El Hachem, E. Roziere, F. Grondin, A. Loukili
Pages: 28 - 36

Investigations of external sulfate attack on limestone blended Portland cements
Author(s): T. Schmidt, B. Lothenbach, M. Romer, K. Scrivener
Pages: 37 - 44

Analysis of deterioration of the concrete of a sewer for industrial waste water with sulphates
Author(s): E. Menéndez, C. Andrade
Pages: 45 - 53

The leaching effect of concrete immersed in ammonium nitrate solution
Author(s): U. Schneider, S.-W. Chen
Pages: 54 - 64

Effect of W/C ratio on physical properties of totally decalcified mortars degraded with ammonium nitrate
Author(s): F. Cassagnabère, J. Verdier
Pages: 65 - 77

Influence of granulated slag on the chemical resistance of cements to the action of ammonium nitrate combined with the temperature of a hot climate
Author(s): M. Behim, P. Clastres
Pages: 78 - 87

Mechanism and implications of acid attack on fly ash and ash/slag inorganic polymers
Author(s): J.L. Provis, R.R. Lloyd, J.S.J. van Deventer
Pages: 88 - 95

Degradation of cementitious materials by some organic acids found in agroindustrial effluents
Author(s): A. Bertron, S. Larreur-Cayol, T.M.T. Le, G. Escadeillas
Pages: 96 - 107

Acetic acid attack of blended cement pastes
Author(s): O. Oueslati, J. Duchesne
Pages: 108 - 115

Concrete corrosion in a wastewater plant
Author(s): A. Leemann, B. Lothenbach, C. Hoffmann, S. Bischof, P. Lunk
Pages: 116 - 124

Durability of cement based materials in contact with drinking water
Author(s): M. Schwotzer, A. Gerdes
Pages: 125 - 132

Impact of environmental microorganisms on chemical evolution of cement pastes
Author(s): S. Roux, F. Feugeas
Pages: 133 - 140

Volume 1 - Session 2: Degradation modeling and service life prediction


Keynote paper: Behavior of HPC nuclear waste storage structures in leaching environment
Author(s): A. Sellier, L. Buffo-Lacarrière, M. El Gognouni, X. Bourbon
Pages: 142 - 166

Numerical modelling of effects of chemical evolution on mechanical behaviour of concrete
Author(s): L. Buffo-Lacarrière, A. Sellier
Pages: 167 - 178

Modelling of leaching effects on fibre-reinforced concrete properties
Author(s): G. Camps, A. Sellier, A. Turatsinze, G. Escadeillas, X. Bourbon
Pages: 179 - 186

Effect of concrete composition on resistance of concrete to acid attacks
Author(s): R.E. Beddoe, K. Schmidt
Pages: 187 - 195

Coupled modeling of cement paste degradation by microbial activity
Author(s): L. De Windt, P. Devillers
Pages: 196 - 203

Uncertainty quantification in durability analysis of concrete under sulfate attack
Author(s): S. Sarkar, S. Mahadevan, J.C.L. Meeussen, D.S. Kosson
Pages: 204 - 211

Influence of limestone on sulfate ingression
Author(s): B. Lothenbach, T. Schmidt
Pages: 212 - 219

Micromechanics applied to the modelling of the behaviour of concrete submitted to external sulphate attack
Author(s): R. El Hachem, F. Grondin, E. Roziere, A. Loukili
Pages: 220 - 227

Physico-chemical investigation of cement pastes degradation in clayey environment: experimental approach and preliminary modelling
Author(s): A. Dauzeres, P. Le Bescop, P. Sardini
Pages: 228 - 239

A probabilistic approach for assessing concrete degradation due to leaching
Author(s): T. de Larrard, F. Benboudjema, J.-B. Colliat, J.-M. Torrenti, F. Deleruyelle
Pages: 240 - 248

Probabilistic design and bayesian update for durability. Application to a marine environment
Author(s): F. Deby, M. Carcassès, A. Sellier
Pages: 249 - 260

Gas diffusion through unsaturated cement-based materials
Author(s): T.H. Vu, F. Frizon, S. Lorente
Pages: 261 - 268

Determination of the chloride transport properties of blended concretes from a new electric migration test
Author(s): J. Lizarazo-Marriaga, P. Claisse
Pages: 269 - 277

Volume 2 - Session 3: Test methods


Keynote paper: Development of test methods to adress the various mechanisms of sulfate attacks
Author(s): D. Hooton, P.W. Brown
Pages: 280 - 297

A critical review on test methods for evaluating the resistance of concrete against sulfate attack
Author(s): K. Van Tittelboom, N. De Belie
Pages: 298 - 306

Design of an accelerated test method for external sulfate attack
Author(s): S. Messad, M. Carcasses, L. Linger
Pages: 307 - 317

Effects of drying-wetting cycles on chloride ingress into concrete
Author(s): A. Ben Fraj, S. Bonnet, A. Khelidj, R. Coué
Pages: 318 - 325

Influence of artificial cracks on chloride diffusion
Author(s): K. Audenaert, G. De Schutter, L. Marsavina
Pages: 326 - 333

Design of a simplified and accelerated test for reinforced concrete biodeterioration
Author(s): M. Hajj Chehade, C. Lors, D. Damidot
Pages: 334 - 342

Test method for evaluating biologically induced degradations of cementitious materials in agro-industrial environments
Author(s): C. Magniont, M. Coutand, A. Bertron, X. Cameleyre, G. Escadeillas, C. Lafforgue, S. Beaufort
Pages: 344 - 355

Comparison between several methods for determining the resistance of concrete to leaching
Author(s): I. Llorente, M. Castellote, C. Andrade
Pages: 356 - 362

Experimental protocols set up for leaching simulation under static and dynamics conditions
Author(s): C. Perlot, M. Carcasses, G. Ballivy
Pages: 363 - 371

Leaching performance test assessing durability of concrete exposed to chemical attack
Author(s): F. Jacquemot
Pages: 372 - 379

X-ray microtomographic analysis of cement pastes with spherical rigid inclusions: cracking due to leaching and the influence of pre-cracking on leaching
Author(s): T. Rougelot, N. Burlion, D. Bernard
Pages: 380 - 388

Acid resistance of concrete containing blast-furnace slag: Influence of the pore srtucture and hydration process
Author(s): E. Gruyaert, N. De Belie, P. Van den Heede
Pages: 389 - 396

Volume 2 - Session 4: Test methods


Keynote paper: Calcium aluminate aoncrete for sewers: going from qualitative to quantitative evidence of performance
Author(s): F. Saucier, S. Lamberet
Pages: 398 - 407

Acid resistant concrete sewer pipes
Author(s): C.W. Fourie, M.G. Alexander
Pages: 408 - 418

Combined acid and sulphate attack on concrete due to oxidation of iron disulphide in construction ground
Author(s): B. Siebert, R. Breitenbücher
Pages: 419 - 426

Influence of curing periods and fine materials on the acid resistance of self compacting concrete
Author(s): H. Siad, H.A. Mesbah, H. Khelafi, M. Mouli
Pages: 427 - 433

Use of neutralised bauxite refinery residue (Bauxsol TM) to improve acid and sulphate resistance of concretes in aggressive environments
Author(s): S.A. Barbhuiya, P.A.M. Basheer, G.I.B. Rankin, M.W. Clark
Pages: 434 - 441

Degradation of reinforced concrete structures in ammonium nitrate environments
Author(s): I. Pepenar
Pages: 442 - 448

Use of early age carbonation to improve the heavy metal immobilisation potential of cement based materials
Author(s): K.J. Owens, P.A.M. Basheer, B. Sen Gupta
Pages: 449 - 457

Influence of slag content and curing conditions on the kinetics of carbonation
Author(s): M. Behim, P. Clastres
Pages: 458 - 466

Effects of limestone sand on transport properties of concrete
Author(s): K. Akrout, M. Ltifi, S. Bonnet, M. Choinska, M. Ben Ouezdou
Pages: 467 - 474

Corrosion monitoring of port structures
Author(s): F. Blin, D.W. Law, B. Gray
Pages: 475 - 484

Long-term durability and microstructural comparison of three reinforced concrete military structures
Author(s): M. Januszewski
Pages: 485 - 492

Volume 2 - Posters


Influence of cement and aggregate nature on degradation mechanisms
Author(s): C. Perlot, M. Carcasses, J. Verdier, X. Bourbon
Pages: 494 - 495

Study of the mechanisms of biodegradation of concrete in sewer systems by biogenic hydrogen sulfide and sulphuric acid
Author(s): T. Chaussadent, F. Boinski, L. Divet, A. Pavoine, E. Van-Hullebusch
Pages: 496 - 497

Influence of carbonate in sulfate environments
Author(s): W. Kunther, B. Lothenbach, K. Scrivener
Pages: 498 - 499

Influence of the cement nature on external sulfate attack
Author(s): J. Auger, S. Lorente, M.-P. Ysorches-Cubaynes, F. Cussigh, L. Demilecamps
Pages: 500 - 501

Penetration of multi-components aggressive chemicals in non-saturated contrete structures
Author(s): Y. Xi, L. Li, N. Damrongwiriyanupap
Pages: 502 - 503

Influence of sodium sulfate solution on the mechanical properties of reinforced concrete beams
Author(s): R. Zeghib
Pages: 504 - 504

Suggestion of methodology for evaluation of marine environment's aggressiveness to the reinforced concrete structures
Author(s): T.C. Kumm, W.L. Repette
Pages: 505 - 505

Effect of granulated slag addition on the physico-mechanical behavior oilwell cements in aggressive environment
Author(s): A. Benmounah, M. Samar, R. Khéribet, M. Saidi, M. Débiane
Pages: 506 - 506

Volume 2 - PSC special session


Air permeability of concrete cover and its relationship with carbonation progress under long-term exposure test in Japan
Author(s): K. Imamoto, K. Shimozawa, N. Nagayama, J. Yamasaki, S. Nimura
Pages: 508 - 514

Use of durability related tests for quality control: variability obtained in a real case
Author(s): B. Ribeiro, A. Gonçalves
Pages: 515 - 522

Performance monitoring of cover-zone concrete
Author(s): J. McCarter, M. Chrisp, G. Starrs, S. Nanukuttan, L. Basheer, M. Basheer
Pages: 523 - 531

Swiss standards SIA 262:2003, a step towards performance-based specifications for durability
Author(s): F. Jacobs, R. Torrent
Pages: 532 - 539

Electrical resistivity as a tool to on-site assessment of curing efficiency
Author(s): L. Fernandez Luco, C. Andrade, M.A. Climent
Pages: 540 - 547

Application of durability indicators for quality control of concrete members - a practical example
Author(s): H. Beushausen, M. Alexander
Pages: 548 - 555

Effect of fluidized bed combustion fly ash on the chloride resistance and scaling resistance of concrete
Author(s): D. Jozwiak-Niedzwiedzka
Pages: 556 - 563

The use of resistivity for measuring aging of chloride diffusion coefficient
Author(s): C. Andrade, M. Castellote, R. d'Andréa
Pages: 564 - 571

Volume 2 - 218-SFC special session


Keynote paper: Overview of sonic testing methods for cement based materials during setting and hardening and results of RILEM TCS ATC and FSC
Author(s): C.U. Grosse, H.W. Reinhardt
Pages: 574 - 579

Ultrasonic wave energy and frequancy spectrum as an alternative instead of wave velocity to monitor concrete or mortar setting
Author(s): N. Robeyst, N. De Belie
Pages: 580 - 587

A ultrasonic device for simulating and testing the in-situ conditions of concrete
Author(s): A. Bouhadjera, C. Bouzrira
Pages: 588 - 594