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Proceedings pro023 : EAC'01: International RILEM Conference on Early Age Cracking in Cementitious Systems


Title: EAC'01: International RILEM Conference on Early Age Cracking in Cementitious Systems
Edited by K. Kovler and A. Bentur
ISBN: 2-912143-29-2
e-ISBN: 2351580362
Pages: 398
Publication date: 2003

Early age cracking sensitivity is a well-known phenomenon, which is associated with drying shrinkage. In special structures and concretes this can be aggravated by thermal effects. The cracking sensitivity induced by drying can occur before or at the onset of setting (plastic shrinkage cracking) or at the period of few days after beginning of setting and hardening. The traditional methods to deal with this problem include the application of proper curing procedures (sealing or water ponding) and the preparation of contraction joints in slabs and pavements.

The advent of modern concrete technology renewed the interest in this issue from several points of view: application of new means to control cracking (e.g. fiber reinforcement and shrinkage reducing admixtures) and the development of a variety of new concretes of superior performance in the fresh and hardened state, that may be more sensitive to early age cracking (e.g. high strength concretes of low water/binder ratio).

In order to optimize the use and design with such concretes and admixtures, there is a need for a comprehensive understanding and treatment of early age cracking. Such an approach is much more complex than the simplistic treatment where cracking sensitivity is quantified in terms of free shrinkage only. It is essential to evaluate, test and model the systems under restrained conditions, to take into account the stresses developed and assess the risk of cracking by considering fracture criteria.

With this in mind, the RILEM technical committee TC 181-EAS was established, to develop and advance the required comprehensive treatment outlined above, to cover basic mechanisms, engineering and design considerations, as well as testing procedures. The current symposium was one of the activities sponsored by this committee. It was intended to bring together international experts dealing with this variety of topics as a step for synthesis of the different complementing approaches to the issue of early age


Contents


Foreword
Author(s): A. Bentur
Pages: XIII - XIII

Part One: Analytical Models


The role of microstructural development on creep and relaxation of hardening concrete
Author(s): K. van Breugel, S.J. Lokhorst
Pages: 3 - 10

Properties of early age concrete - Experiments and modelling
Author(s): A.-W. Gutsch
Pages: 11 - 18

Chemoplastic material model for the simulation of early-age cracking: from experiments to the constitutive law
Author(s): R. Lackner, H.A. Mang
Pages: 19 - 29

Modelling of early age thermal cracking in hardening concrete, including creep and softening behavior
Author(s): G. De Schutter
Pages: 31 - 38

Numerical model for prediction of cracks in concrete structures
Author(s): A. van Beek, B.E.J. Baetens, E. Schlangen
Pages: 39 - 48

Numerical simulation of temperature and strain development in the Maridal Culvert
Author(s): D. Bosnjak, T. Kanstad
Pages: 49 - 59

Part Two: Driving Forces


Thermal dilation and autogenous deformation
Author(s): Ø. Bjøntegaard, E.J. Sellevold
Pages: 63 - 70

Heat of hydration of self-compacting concrete
Author(s): A.-M. Poppe, G. De Schutter
Pages: 71 - 78

Shrinkage microcracking in cement-based materials with low water-cement ratio
Author(s): J. Bisschop, P. Lura, J. van Mier
Pages: 79 - 88

The relation between settlement and plastic shrinkage of high-strength concrete
Author(s): T.A. Hammer
Pages: 89 - 102

Effect of the release of the formworks and of a thermal shock on the temperature and strains gradients in non-reinforced concrete
Author(s): O. Bonneau, P.-C. Aïtcin
Pages: 103 - 113

Autogenous shrinkage of different types of cement and different types of admixtures at early ages
Author(s): H. Mitani, J.-P. Bournazel, N. Rafaï
Pages: 115 - 122

Part Three: Engineering Properties


Effects of microstructure on restrained autogenous shrinkage behavior in high strength concretes at early ages
Author(s): S. Igarashi, M. Kawamura
Pages: 125 - 132

The Pickett effect in early age concrete under restrained conditions
Author(s): S. Altoubat, D.A. Lange
Pages: 133 - 143

Restrained shrinkage cracking: the role of shrinkage reducing admixtures and specimen geometry
Author(s): W.J. Weiss, S.P. Shah
Pages: 145 - 157

Relationship of drying shrinkage to cracking for concrete slabs with and without shrinkage reducing admixtures
Author(s): N.S. Berke, J.J. Malone, W. Yang
Pages: 159 - 167

Some aspects of evaluating cracking sensitivity of repair materials
Author(s): A.M. Vaysburd, P.H. Emmons, B. Bissonnette, M. Pigeon
Pages: 169 - 185

Method of predicting concrete creep
Author(s): E.O. Olkhovik, O.L. Figovsky
Pages: 187 - 196

Part Four: Testing Techniques


Determination of initial degree of hydration by ultra-sonic pulse technique
Author(s): M. Kraus, K. Hariri, F.S. Rostásy
Pages: 199 - 208

Investigation of fracture processes in young concrete using electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPY)
Author(s): K. Hariri, F.S. Rostásy
Pages: 209 - 216

Measurement methods for testing of early age autogenous strain
Author(s): T.A. Hammer, Ø. Bjøntegaard, E.J. Sellevold
Pages: 217 - 228

Stress-based crack criterion as a basis for prevention of through-cracks in concrete structures at early ages
Author(s): K. van Breugel, S.J. Lokhorst
Pages: 229 - 236

Influence of AR glass fibers on the cracking of concrete: Analysis at the very early age by digital image correlation
Author(s): M. Némoz-Gaillard, D. Nectoux, E. Dallies, D. Muller
Pages: 237 - 244

Early age deformations of hydrating cement systems: comparison of linear and volumetric shrinkage measurements
Author(s): J.P. Charron, J. Marchand, B. Bissonnette
Pages: 245 - 256

Part Five: Special Cementitious Systems


Continuous concrete placement of bridge decks in multispan structures with additional retarder over supports
Author(s): F. Gallo, M. Rabkin
Pages: 259 - 268

Durability aspects of concrete and mortar in the presence of a new concrete improver admixture
Author(s): D. Zampini, M. Weibel, A. Walliser, M. Oppliger
Pages: 269 - 276

Early age creep and stress relaxation of concrete containing blended cements
Author(s): I. Pane, W. Hansen
Pages: 277 - 288

Influence of chemical admixtures on concrete shrinkage and cracking
Author(s): Z. Li, M. Qi, B. Ma
Pages: 289 - 297

Shrinkage of high performance concrete
Author(s): B. Persson
Pages: 299 - 309

Crack sensitivity at early age for high strength and super high strength concrete
Author(s): Ø. Bjøntegaard, E.J. Sellevold
Pages: 311 - 318

Comparative study of early age cracking in HPC and NPC structures
Author(s): A. Nagy
Pages: 319 - 326

Experimental investigation of cracking behavior of reinforced high strength concrete
Author(s): M. Sule, K. van Breugel
Pages: 327 - 334

Autogenous and drying shrinkage of high strength lightweight aggregate concrete at early ages - The effect of specimen size
Author(s): P. Lura, K. van Breugel
Pages: 335 - 342

Improvement of flexural behavior of reinforced high strength concrete members by reducing autogenous shrinkage
Author(s): M. Tanimura, Y. Shimoyama, H. Omori, R. Sato
Pages: 343 - 353

Shrinkage of high strength natural lightweight aggregate concretes
Author(s): A. Yeginobali
Pages: 355 - 362

Efficiency of lightweight aggregates for internal curing of high strength concrete to eliminate autogenous shrinkage
Author(s): S. Zhutovsky, K. Kovler, A. Bentur
Pages: 363 - 371

Early-age shrinkage and cracking of controlled low-strength materials (CLSM)
Author(s): A. Katz, K. Kovler, I. Schamban
Pages: 373 - 381