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Proceedings pro038 : 3rd International RILEM Workshop on Testing and Modelling the Chloride Ingress into Concrete


Title: 3rd International RILEM Workshop on Testing and Modelling the Chloride Ingress into Concrete
Edited by C. Andrade and J. Kropp
ISBN: 2-912143-48-9
e-ISBN: 2912143578
Pages: 462
Publication date: 2004

This 3rd RILEM Workshop on the processes involved in the transport of chloride ions through concrete has highlighted the still prevailing distance from present knowledge to the attempts to predict the time to depassivation of steel reinforcement in real reinforced concrete structures exposed to service conditions containing chloride ions. The more experimental results are published the clearer the huge task appears of what an analytical modelling of the chloride transport into concrete represents.
The workshop was focused on in-depth discussions around six main lectures summarizing the state of the art. The lectures and the oral contributions enabled the participants to reach conclusions stimulating new research and new empirical ways to provide assistance and solutions to engineers designing new structures and assessing existing ones.

Six subjects were selected for presentation in key note lectures and they were given by the following experts:

1. Concepts on chloride ingress modelling – L.O. Nilsson
2. Concepts on diffusion coefficients – C. Andrade
3. Threshold chloride levels – C. Page
4. Surface concentration and calculated D in existing structures – C. Larsen
5. Short term testing for long term prediction – M. Thomas
6. What a service life model can offer to an owner – J. Gulikers

Not all of the key note lectures are published in the present volume of the workshop proceedings, but a summary of the major ideas has been prepared by the secretary of RILEM TC 178-TMC, Prof. Dr. Kropp.
The recognition of the limited scientific knowledge and therefore of the uncertainty inherent in any type of model has to be considered as a stimulation of further research and a growing importance of the subject. However, all interested researchers and practitioners should approach the modelling of chloride penetration into concrete with the modesty necessary to face scientific challenges instead of demanding accuracies in the prediction that are unachievable at present.


Contents


Foreword
Author(s): Andrade
Pages: XI - XI

Invited Lectures


Concepts on the chloride diffusion coefficient
Author(s): C. Andrade
Pages: 3 - 17

Testing and modelling the chloride ingress in concrete
Author(s): J. Kropp
Pages: 19 - 28

Concepts in chloride ingress modelling
Author(s): L. Nilsson
Pages: 29 - 48

Papers


Electrical double layer effect on chloride migration in cement-based materials
Author(s): A. Aït-Mokhtar
Pages: 51 - 64

A pragmatic prediction model for chloride ingress into concrete
Author(s): M. Alexander
Pages: 65 - 76

Corrosion rates of concretes made with different binders and exposed for 10 years in natural sea water
Author(s): C. Alonso
Pages: 77 - 91

Are service life models appropriate for use in design of reinforced concrete structures for exposure to chloride salts?
Author(s): C. Andrade
Pages: 93 - 104

Which toolkit for durability evaluation as regards chloride ingress into concrete? Part I: Comparison between various methods for assessing the chloride diffusion coefficient of concrete in saturated conditions
Author(s): V. Baroghel-Bouny
Pages: 105 - 136

Which toolkit for durability evaluation as regards chloride ingress into concrete? Part II: Development of a performance approach based on durability indicators and monitoring parameters
Author(s): V. Baroghel-Bouny
Pages: 137 - 163

Comparison of resistance to chloride penetration of concretes and mortars for repair
Author(s): L. Bertolini
Pages: 165 - 168

A mathematical model for predicting chloride penetration into concrete exposed to marine environment in temperate climate.
Author(s): M. Massimo Borsa
Pages: 179 - 191

Rapid determination of the oh- content in the aqueous phase of hardened cementitious materials by a leaching method: validation for different binders.
Author(s): M. Castellote
Pages: 193 - 203

Transport and binding of chlorides through non-saturated concrete after an initial limited chloride supply
Author(s): G. de Vera
Pages: 205 - 218

Repairing concrete car parks - a case study from the client's perspective
Author(s): M. Grantham
Pages: 219 - 227

Chloride diffusion in and out of concrete made with different types of binders
Author(s): G. Gudmundsson
Pages: 229 - 235

Chloride diffusion and the influence of the saturation degree of the concrete
Author(s): A. Guimarães
Pages: 237 - 255

Improved engineering model for the propagation stage of chloride-induced pitting corrosion of steel reinforcement
Author(s): J. Gulikers
Pages: 257 - 268

A study on the difference of chloride ion diffusibity and degradation of cement mortar due to NaCI and CaCl2 ingress
Author(s): M. Hisada
Pages: 269 - 280

Influence of temperature and salinity on the chloride ingress into concrete exposed in marine environments
Author(s): A. Lindvall
Pages: 281 - 296

Qualitative and quantitative description of the road environment with respect to corrosion of reinforcing steel
Author(s): A. Lindvall
Pages: 297 - 316

On relationships between different chloride diffusion and/or migration coefficients in concrete
Author(s): T. Tang
Pages: 317 - 328

Chloride ingress modelling: comparison of experimental and numerical data
Author(s): S. Meijers
Pages: 329 - 345

Redistribution of chloride in blended cement concrete during storage in various climates
Author(s): R. Polder
Pages: 347 - 359

Comparison between chloride ion threshold and electrochemical measurements for reinforcement corrosion
Author(s): O. de Rincón
Pages: 361 - 380

Effect of carbonation on chloride penetration in concrete
Author(s): T. Saeki
Pages: 381 - 394

Influence of concrete composition on the transport of chloride ions in concrete
Author(s): M. Salta
Pages: 395 - 415

Field determination of critical chloride content for depassivation of steel
Author(s): O. Vennesland
Pages: 417 - 421

Time dependency of chloride diffusion coefficients in concrete
Author(s): J. Visser
Pages: 423 - 433

A study on chloride penetration under a dry-wet condition considering the chloride binding capacity of cement
Author(s): K. Yamada
Pages: 433 - 446