Proceedings pro130 : 5th Historic Mortars Conference

Title: Proceedings of the 5th Historic Mortars Conference
Edited by: José Ignacio Álvarez, José María Fernández, Íńigo Navarro, Adrián Durán, Rafael Sirera
Pages: 1390
Publication date: 2019

HMC’s are fully consolidated as a one-of-a kind forum to deal with historic mortars, renders and grouts, the variety of their compositions and raw materials, diverse methodologies of study, archeological sites, dating, preservation, durability, obtaining of repair materials and testing methods, consolidation, and even the upgrade of the repair mortars by nano-technology. This HMC 2019 gathers 165 scientific and technical high-levelled contributions of participants from the five continents. Up to twelve different topics are displayed in the Conference Programme, thus emphasising the wide range of approaches that enrich the final outcome of the event. The profitable exchange between the science advances and the practice taking place during the Conference is supported by contributions focused on a more theoretical scientific point of view combined with those works more oriented towards real applications, including case studies, assessment of the state of conservation of some ancient materials or monitoring of the effectiveness of some rehabilitation procedures and repair materials.


Author(s): Prof. José Ignacio Álvarez
Pages: 1-1

Topic 1

Topic 1: Earth-based plasters and mortars on archaeology and historic constructions
Author(s): -
Pages: 3-3

Earth-based and current plasters: assessment of efficiency and contribution to indoor air quality
Author(s): Tânia Santos, Maria Idália Gomes, Flávia Coelho, Paulina Faria
Pages: 5-20

Earth-based plasters: the influence of clay mineralogy
Author(s): José Lima, Paulina Faria, António Santos Silva
Pages: 21-35

Rescuing the manufacturing process of traditional mortars present on XIX-century earthen buildings in Brazil
Author(s): Andrea Cavicchioli, Isabela Ferreira Sodré dos Santos, Joăo Guilherme Kimura Moreira, Lucy Gomes Sant'Anna
Pages: 36-50

Assessment of adhesive strength of an earth plaster on different substrates through different methods
Author(s): Paulina Faria, José Lima, Joăo Nabais, Vitor Silva
Pages: 51-64

Similar appearance of mortar and brick masses in Algiers Casbah houses during the Ottoman period (16th- early 18th centuries)
Author(s): Semha Bernou, Tsouria Kassab, Rosa Bustamante, Francisco Fernández
Pages: 65-79

Macroscopic high resolution techniques to the characterization the mortars structures in the Sé-Cathedral´s archaeological complex in Idanha-a-Velha (Portugal)
Author(s): Pablo Guerra-García, Jorge Morín de Pablos, Isabel Sánchez Ramos
Pages: 80-92

Topic 2

Author(s): -
Pages: 93-93

Evaluation of the influence of nano-SiO2 and nano-Al2O3 on the physico-mechanical properties and microstructure of calcareous clay
Author(s): Eirini-Chrysanthi Tsardaka, Maria Stefanidou
Pages: 95-107

The use of nanoparticles to improve the performance of restoration mortars
Author(s): Beatriz Menéndez, Dita Frankeová, José Diaz, Radek Ševčík, Petra Macová, Mouna Faiz, Zuzana Slížková
Pages: 108-120

Evaluation of SiO2 nanoparticles as additive for lime mortars: changes in the microstructure and mechanical properties
Author(s): María del Mar Barbero-Barrera, Aranzazu Sierra Fernández, Duygu Ergenc , Luz Stella Gomez Villalba, Rafael Fort
Pages: 121-131

Enhancing clay mortars’ properties
Author(s): A. Karozou, M. Stefanidou
Pages: 132-143

Study of the role of different nanoparticles in lime pastes
Author(s): Eirini-Chrysanthi Tsardaka, Maria Stefanidou
Pages: 144-154

Active photocatalytic-superhydrophobic coating with TiO2/ZnO nano-heterostructures for lime mortars
Author(s): Alessandro Speziale, Jesús Fidel González-Sánchez, Íńigo Navarro-Blasco, José M. Fernández, José I. Alvarez
Pages: 155-168

Topic 3

Topic 3: Gypsum-based plasters and mortars in historical constructions
Author(s): -
Pages: 169-169

Study of properties of gypsum plasters from Araripe’s Pole for application in restoration mortars
Author(s): Fernanda Cavalcanti Ferreira, Jose Getulio Gomes de Sousa, Arnaldo Manoel Pereira Carneiro
Pages: 171-185

Characterization of Gypsum Renders in the Paris Region and Determination of the Traditional Fabrication Process
Author(s): Jean Ducasse-Lapeyrusse, Véronique Vergčs-Belmin
Pages: 186-200

The use of stucco-marble to restore veined polished limestone. The case of the pavement in the major sacristy of the Cathedral of Seville
Author(s): Antonio González Portillo, Maria Teresa Freire
Pages: 201-210

Stucco marble in the Portuguese architecture: first insights in mineralogical, physical and mechanical properties
Author(s): Maria Teresa Freire, António Santos Silva, Maria do Rosário Veiga
Pages: 211-225

Clay and gypsum mortars used during antiquity in Cyprus
Author(s): Maria Philokyprou
Pages: 226-236

Physical- mechanical comparison of the traditional gypsums from Albarracín and Pallars
Author(s): David Osmar Batres Hernández, Antonia Navarro Ezquerra, Joan Ramon Rosell Amigó
Pages: 237-247

Detailed studies of gypsum plasters from the Ishrat Khana Mausoleum in Samarkand, Uzbekistan
Author(s): Steffen Laue
Pages: 248-258

Topic 4

Topic 4: Functional mortars for the conservation of historic and modern cultural heritage structures
Author(s): -
Pages: 259-259

Use of natural zeolite aggregate in restoration lime renders
Author(s): Martin Vyšvařil, Patrik Bayer, Tomáš Žižlavský, Pavla Rovnaníková
Pages: 261-272

Fibre reinforced mortars for cultural heritage protection
Author(s): Miloš Drdácký, Dagmar Michoinová
Pages: 273-282

Comparative evaluation of the morphological and rheological characteristics of nanolime dispersions for the consolidation of architectural monuments
Author(s): Anastasia Michalopoulou, Elisavet Michailidi, Evangelos Favvas, Noni-Pagona Maravelaki, Vassilis Kilikoglou, Ioannis Karatasios
Pages: 283-295

Autogenic vs. autonomic self-healing process in conservation mortars with crystalline admixture
Author(s): Maria Amenta, Matina Papaioannou, Marios S. Katsiotis, Dimitris Gournis, Vassilis Kilikoglou, Ioannis Karatasios
Pages: 296-306

Addressing safety and durability requirements of architectural heritage by developing functional conservation mortars
Author(s): Ioannis Karatasios, Zoi S. Metaxa, Stavros K. Kourkoulis, Nikolaos D. Alexopoulos, Vassilis Kilikoglou
Pages: 307-318

Self- healing lime-based mortars using biological mechanisms and microvascular networks
Author(s): Cristina De Nardi, Magdalini Theodoridou, Philip Sim, Michael Harbottle, Anthoby D. Jefferson
Pages: 319-329

Hydrophobized lime grouts prepared with microsilica and superplasticizers
Author(s): Jesús Fidel González-Sánchez, Íńigo Navarro-Blasco, Adrián Duran, Rafael Sirera, José M. Fernández, José Ignacio Álvarez
Pages: 330-345

Photoactive Fe-TiO2 Lime Plasters for Building Protection
Author(s): Chrysi Kapridaki, Nikolaos Xynidis, Nikolaos Xekoukoulotakis, Nikolaos Kallithrakas-Kontos, Noni Maravelaki
Pages: 346-358

Lime-based rendering mortars with photocatalytic and hydrophobic agents: assessment of the water repellency and biocide effect
Author(s): Jesús Fidel González-Sánchez, Burcu Taşcı, Guillermo Martínez de Tejada, José M. Fernández, Íńigo Navarro-Blasco, José Ignacio Alvarez
Pages: 359-372

SRG, Steel Reinforced Grout for strengthening masonry structures: from tests to applications
Author(s): Paolo Casadei, Paolo Girardello
Pages: 373-382

Topic 5

Characterization of historic mortars and masonry structures. Sampling and test methods
Author(s): -
Pages: 383-383

Calcite or quartz powder as aggregate of Roman plasters (Lombardy, Italy)
Author(s): Roberto Bugini, Luisa Folli
Pages: 385-395

Analytical and chromatic characterization of the interior walls finishes in the Batlló House of Gaudí in Barcelona. A surprising discovery
Author(s): Ŕgueda Serra, Joan Casadevall
Pages: 396-409

Roman mortars of floor substrates and walls from Arroyo de la Dehesa de Velasco site: petrographic and mineralogical characterization
Author(s): Ainhoa Alonso-Olazabal,, Luis Ángel Ortega, Ma Cruz Zuluaga, Graciela Ponce, Javier Jiménez Echevarría, Carmen Alonso Fernández
Pages: 410-423

Provenance study of raw materials used for lime making at Prague Castle during medieval times
Author(s): Petr Kozlovcev, Jan Válek, Olga Skružná
Pages: 424-438

Interpretation of scientific data derived from analytical techniques used in the characterization of Roman mortars
Author(s): Petr Kozlovcev, Jan Válek, Olga Skružná
Pages: 439-452

Petrography of Historic Mortar Materials: Polarising Light Microscopy as a Method for Characterising Lime-Based Mortars
Author(s): Kristin Balksten,Bo Nitz, John J. Hughes,Jan-Erik Lindqvist
Pages: 453-467

Roman vs. medieval crushed brick lime mortars: A comparative study
Author(s): Martin Schidlowski, Tobias Bader, Anja Diekamp
Pages: 468-481

A map is worth a thousand pictures: Using FTIR-imaging to analyze petrographic thin sections of historical and experimental mortar
Author(s): Anthony J. Baragona, Marta Anghelone, Johannes Weber
Pages: 482-494

Characterisation of concrete structures along the Reschen frontier, South Tyrol, Italy
Author(s): Tobias Bader, Anja Diekamp
Pages: 495-505

Chemical, mineralogical and hydraulic characteristics of Roman mortars in Turkey
Author(s): Burcu Taşcı,Hasan Böke
Pages: 506-515

DB-HERITAGE: A database of mortars composition and characteristics
Author(s): António Santos Silva, Rodrigo Giollo, Maria Joăo Correia, Maria do Rosário Veiga, Paulina Faria
Pages: 516-528

Algarve vernacular architecture facade ornaments: chemical and mineralogical characterization
Author(s): Marta Santo, António Santos Silva, Rosário Veiga
Pages: 529-543

Characterisation methodology for lime based materials – A case study of the Rajagopuram of Pundarikaksha temple in Tamil Nadu, India
Author(s): Divya Rani and Manu Santhanam
Pages: 544-554

Sampling cataloging methodology procedures for the conservation of historical colours in urban landscapes
Author(s): Isolina Díaz-Ramos, Jorge Manzano Cabrera
Pages: 555-564

Mineralogical characterization of historical cement-based mortars from Rupnik military fortification line
Author(s): Petra Štukovnik, Janez Peter Grom, Marjan Marinšek, Violeta Bokan Bosiljkov
Pages: 565-575

Topic 6

Historic production, processing and application of mortars, renders and grouts. Lime technologies
Author(s): -
Pages: 577-577

Warm applied Mortar (WAM) – An insight into the historical technique of “Heiße Speis” and its use for renders
Author(s): Robert Wacha, Farkas Pintér
Pages: 579-584

Blast furnace slag in historic mortars of Bergslagen, Sweden
Author(s): Jan Erik Lindqvist, Kristin Balksten, Birgit Fredrich
Pages: 585-595

Composition and Technology of the 17th Century Stucco Decorations at Červená Lhota Castle in the Southern Bohemia
Author(s): Jan Válek, Olga Skružná, Petr Kozlovcev, Dita Frankeová, Petra Mácová, Alberto Viani, Ivana Kumpová
Pages: 596-613

Hot applied lime mortar – assessment of a traditional technique used in modern restoration
Author(s): Thomas Köberle, Matthias Zötzl, Alexander Fenzke, Heiner Siedel
Pages: 614-627

Preliminary research on potential raw material sources for dolomitic lime mortars at St. John’s convent at Müstair, Switzerland
Author(s): Giovanni Cavallo, Marta Caroselli, Albert Jornet, Patrick Cassitti
Pages: 628-641

A Mortar Maker’s guide to evolving mortar specifications in 18th and 19th C France and England and their implications today
Author(s): Lucie Fusade
Pages: 642-652

Topic 7

Mortars in archaeological sites. Construction history. Archaeometry
Author(s): -
Pages: 653-653

Characterization and durability analysis of coral stones in a marine environment
Author(s): Swathy Manohar, Manu Santhanam
Pages: 655-664

Technical analysis on materials and characteristics of mortar-based compounds in Roman and Late antique Aquileia (Udine, Italy). A preliminary report of the results
Author(s): Simone Dilaria, Michele Secco, Jacopo Bonetto, Gilberto Artioli
Pages: 665-680

Fernandina old Wall of Lisbon – Characterization towards its preservation
Author(s): Leandro Gomes, Paulina Faria, Vitor Silva, António Santos Silva
Pages: 681-694

M.N.I.A.R. techniques of macroscopic characterization from the colorimetry and chromatographies analysis applied to the mortars in the archaeological site of Los Hitos (Arisgotas, Toledo, Spain)
Author(s): Pablo Guerra-García, Jorge Morín de Pablos, Isabel Sánchez Ramos
Pages: 695-712

Analysis of mortar samples from the Church of the Saints Sergius and Bacchus at Umm as-Surab (Jordan)
Author(s): Piero Gilento, Cecilia Pesce, Giovanni Pesce
Pages: 713-726

Characterisation of Roman Mortar from the Archaeological Site of Mirobriga
Author(s): Alvin Sern Hao Chua, Cristina Galacho, Patrícia Moita, José Carlos Quaresma
Pages: 727-742

Insights into Carolingian construction techniques – results from archaeological and mineralogical studies at Müstair Monastery, Grisons, Switzerland
Author(s): Marta Caroselli, Christine Bläuer, Patrick Cassitti, Giovanni Cavallo, Irka Hajdas, Sophie Hueglin, Hans Neukom, Albert Jornet
Pages: 743-757

Animal, Vegetable or Mineral? Characterising shell-lime, maerl-lime and limestone-lime mortar evidence from the Late Norse and Medieval site of Tuquoy, Orkney
Author(s): Mark Thacker, John Hughes, Nic Odling3
Pages: 758-777

Topic 8

Topic 8: Dating of historic mortars
Pages: 779

An Ecology of Castle Construction: geoarchaeology, archaeobotany & radiocarbon analysis in the ecotone of Lochindorb Castle
Author(s): Mark Thacker
Pages: 781-799

Characterization of historic mortars: techniques used to establish a construction chronology. Case study: “Aragoneses’ Mill” as it belongs to popular architectural heritage
Author(s): Esther Moreno Fernández, Javier Pinilla Melo, Francisco González Yunta, Alberto Sepulcre Aguilar, Ignacio Lombillo Vozmediano, Yosbel Boffill Orama
Pages: 800-815

Topic 9

Topic 9: Natural and Roman cement mortars
Pages: 817

From marlstone to rotary kilns – the early development of Portland cements in Central Europe
Author(s): Farkas Pintér, Christophe Gosselin, Thomas Köberle, István Vidovszky, Johannes Weber
Pages: 819-832

European natural cements - their key technical properties under standardised conditions
Author(s): David Hughes, Johannes Weber, Vincenzo Starinieri, Farkas Pinter , Christophe Gosselin, Steven Feldman, Cecilia Pesce
Pages: 833-847

Restoration techniques using 1930’s Portland cements at Porte de l’Est in the Roman city-wall of Aventicum, Switzerland
Author(s): Christophe Gosselin, Noé Terrapon
Pages: 848-861

Drying Shrinkage of Historic Portland Cements: Factors to be Considered for Successful Repair
Author(s): Simeon Wilkie, Thomas Dyer
Pages: 862-876

Repairs to Historic Concrete Pavement at Jacob Riis Park Utilizing Natural, Roman and Portland Cements
Author(s): Michael P. Edison
Pages: 855-877

Methodology of identification of natural and historic Portland cements. Application and study in mortars of Madrid and Barcelona
Author(s): Cristina Mayo Corrochano, Judith Ramírez-Casas, David Sanz Arauz, Antonia Navarro Ezquerra, Juan Ramon Rosell Amigo
Pages: 886-890

The use of mortars in Palau Güell by Antoni Gaudi
Author(s): Ricardo Gomez-Val, Judith Ramirez-Casas, Antonia Navarro-Ezquerra
Pages: 901-913

When Portland cement meets natural cement
Author(s): Elisabeth Marie-Victoire, Myriam Bouichou
Pages: 914-927

Topic 10

Topic 10: Conservation issues concerning mortars, plasters, renders and grouts. Diagnosis. Decay and damage mechanisms. Case studies
Pages: 929

Decorative renders simulating stone of middle 20th century in the region of Lisbon
Author(s): Maria do Rosário Veiga, António Santos Silva, Cláudia Martinho, Paulina Faria
Pages: 931-943

The analysis of the proportion of mortar for Japanese roof tile (Ibushikawara) in Taiwan by applying of Taguchi Method
Author(s): Mei-Tsu Hsu , Bing-Sheng Yu
Pages: 944-958

Evolution of mortars composition and characteristics during the 20th century– Study of Portuguese buildings awarded with Architecture Valmor Prize
Author(s): Luís Almeida, António Santos Silva, José Mirăo, Maria do Rosário Veiga
Pages: 959-972

Practical application of lime-pozzolan mortars to damp masonry
Author(s): Dita Frankeová, Dana Janotová, Zuzana Slížková
Pages: 973-985

The use of dolomitic lime in mortar samples from a 15th-century buttress of York Minster (York, UK)
Author(s): Cecilia Pesce, Alick Leslie, Alison Henry, John David, Giovanni Pesce
Pages: 986-996

The Restoration of the church of Our Lady of the Assumption, Dauis, Bohol, Philippines
Author(s): Engr. Jim Franklin O. Kalaw, Engr. Raul Y. Naguit Jr.
Pages: 997-1007

Digital image analysis as basis for the evaluation of repair mortars in architectural conservation
Author(s): C. Kaiser, L. Oetinger, R. Killian
Pages: 1008-1020

Topic 11

Topic 11: Preservation. Consolidation materials and techniques. Development of new products. Preventive conservation
Pages: 1021

Frost resistance of reproduced mosaic mortars
Author(s): Pavla Bauerová, Pavel Reiterman, Eva Vejmelková, Martin Keppert
Pages: 1023-1031

Preliminary results on the use of ammonium phosphate solutions for the consolidation of lime-based mortars
Author(s): Enrico Sassoni, Cesare Pizzigatti, Elisa Franzoni
Pages: 1032-1039

Comparative study of ethyl silicate versus acrylic resin consolidation of wall painting with high water and salts contents: a case study at the Chapter Hall of Chartres cathedral
Author(s): Laura Normand, Stéphanie Duchęne, Véronique Vergčs-Belmin, Claire Dandrel, David Giovannacci, Witold Nowik
Pages: 1040-1055

Comparative analysis of permeability values of traditional aerial lime mortars for preventive conservation
Author(s): Ana González-Serrano, Reyes Rodríguez-García, Esther Ontiveros-Ortega
Pages: 1056-1067

Challenges and strategies of preventive conservation in places of worship – Church of Nossa Senhora de Guadalupe case study
Author(s): Ana González-Serrano, Reyes Rodríguez-García, Esther Ontiveros-Ortega
Pages: 1068-1084

Topic 12

Topic 12: Repair mortars and grouts. Requirements and design. Compatibility issues. Durability and effectiveness. Repair mortars: Adequacy of testing procedures
Pages: 1085

Effects of natural zeolite addition to lime based render layers for restoration of historical buildings
Author(s): Marina Aškrabić, Dimitrije Zakić, Aleksandar Savić, Ljiljana Miličić
Pages: 1087-1098

Use of ultrafine mafic rocks for the enhancement of carbonation reaction in lime renders
Author(s): Loucas Kyriakou, Ioannis Rigopoulos, Ioannis Ioannou
Pages: 1099-1111

Microstructure of lime pastes with the addition of vegetable oils
Author(s): Cristiana Nunes, Alberto Viani, Kateřina Mlsnová, Dita Frankeová, Petra Mácová
Pages: 1112-1124

Improvements to Water, Salt-Scaling and Freeze-Thaw Resistances Of Historic Mortar Replication Mixes
Author(s): Michael P. Edison, Chad Lausberg
Pages: 1125-1141

Formulated lime mortars as a sustainable practice for Built Heritage conservation in Mexico
Author(s): Marlene Sámano Chong
Pages: 1142-1155

The impact of elevated temperatures on the properties of lime- based mortars
Author(s): Vasiliki Pachta, Sofia Triantafyllaki, Maria Stefanidou
Pages: 1156-1165

Characterization and compatibility assessment of commercial stone repair mortars
Author(s): Barbara Lubelli, Timo G. Nijland, Rob P.J. van Hees
Pages: 1166-1179

Impact of aggregates on fresh mortars’ properties
Author(s): Ana Rita Santos, Maria do Rosário Veiga, António Santos Silva, Jorge de Brito
Pages: 1180-1194

NHL-based plasters and renders – Assessing the influence of mixing method on workability and hardened mortar properties
Author(s): Frowin Ruegenberg, Martin Schidlowski, Tobias Bader, Anja Diekamp
Pages: 1195-1214

Lime-based grouts for architectural surface repair. Comparison of their performance by using laboratory and field test methods
Author(s): Vasiliki Pachta, Ioanna Papayianni, Thomas Spyriliotis
Pages: 1215-1224

Evaluation of the fresh state properties of lime-based grouts through inter-laboratory comparative testing
Author(s): Vasiliki Pachta, Davide Gulotta, Jan Valek, Ioanna Papayianni
Pages: 1225-1237

Lime-pozzolan injection grouts with ovalbumin and ethanol added as water-reducing agents: grout design and assessment of the mineralogical evolution
Author(s): Chiara Pasian, Michele Secco, Francesca Piqué, Gilberto Artioli, Sharon Cather
Pages: 1238-1250

Limestone-filled, hydraulic-lime mortars for historic and traditional fabrics
Author(s): Marwa Aly, Sara Pavía
Pages: 1251-1266

Comparing the moisture permeability of limecrete and concrete floor slabs
Author(s): Grace A. Phillips, Kevin Briggs, Iain McCaig, Richard J. Ball
Pages: 1267-1278

Impact of guar gum and chitosan ethers on physico-mechanical properties and durability of natural hydraulic lime mortars
Author(s): Tomáš Žižlavský, Martin Vyšvařil, Patrik Bayer, Pavla Rovnaníková
Pages: 1279-1290

Diethyl oxalate-based microgrouts in calcium carbonate systems: formulation, field testing and mineralogical characterization
Author(s): J. Herrick Porter, C. Pasian, M. Secco, M. Salameh, N. Debono
Pages: 1291-1305

Influence of the substrate on the mechanical characteristics of the applied mortars
Author(s): Isabel Torres, Dora Silveira, Inęs Flores-Colen, Rafael Pinto, Gina Matias
Pages: 1306-1315

Lime Based Mortars. Relationships between Composition Parameters and Mechanical Strength
Author(s): Ioanna Papayianni, Dimitris Papadimitriou
Pages: 1316-1324

Investigating differences in the performance of lime-based mortars
Author(s): Ioanna Papayianni, Vasiliki Pachta, Emmanouela Berberidou, Maria Kalogirou
Pages: 1325-1332

A grout and mortar system for fine cracks and shallow surface fills in Carrara marble
Author(s): Andrew Thorn
Pages: 1333-1345

Evaluation of the rheological behaviour of a natural additive of vegetal origin in restoration lime mortars as an ecological and sustainable alternative
Author(s): N. Guasch-Ferré, M.R. Veiga, T. Díaz Gonçalves, M. T. Doménech-Carbó, J.L. Prada,
Pages: 1346-1360

The initial reactions of lime-pozzolan pastes for conservation of masonry
Author(s): Tuğçe Büşra Su, Richard J Ball, Juliana Calabria Holley
Pages: 1361-1373

Efficiency of field test methods for evaluation of non-structural injection grouts in Slovenian conservation practice
Author(s): Andreja Padovnik, Violeta Bokan Bosiljkov
Pages: 1374-1387