Publications

Proceedings pro024 : 2nd International RILEM Workshop on Frost Resistance of Concrete


Title: 2nd International RILEM Workshop on Frost Resistance of Concrete
Edited by M. J. Setzer, R. Auberg and H. - J. Keck
ISBN: 2-912143-30-6
e-ISBN: 2351580370
Pages: 400
Publication date: 2002

Since 1991 the RILEM Technical Committees 117-FDC "Freeze-Thaw and De-Icing Resistance of Concrete" and TC 176-IDC "Internal Damage of Concrete Due to Freeze-Thaw Attack" have been extending our knowledge in the field of frost action on concrete. Their success is based on the close link existing between basic research and the problems encountered in practical application. The major research goals for the practice were improved testing methods, optimisation of mix-design, the assessment of new techniques and materials and finally better prediction of service live. The basis was a deeper understanding of the relevant physical and chemical interactions as well as of mass and heat transport. Moreover, these factors vary over a wide range of sizes; from nanometres, for surface active gel via micrometers, for capillaries, to metres, for the macroscopic structures themselves.

This workshop resulted from the co-operation of TC 176-IDC with other RILEM TCs, which permitted the exchange of experience with experts in other fields of concrete research: RILEM TC 178-TMC and RILEM TC FHP.

The major topics of the workshop were:
1. Phase transitions of pore solution.
2. Transport of mass and heat in nano-porous materials; the Stephan problem, the moving boundary condition and freezing.
3. Interphases in the gel and capillary system of hardened cement paste and gel phase changes.
4. Changes in the mechanical properties due to changes in pore solution composition, gel and capillary structure and due to the attack of frost and de-icing chemicals.
5. Testing of the scaling and internal damage due to freeze-thaw attack, de-icing agents.
6. Correlation with practical behaviour; new materials and components, life-time prediction.


Contents


Preface
Author(s): M.J. Setzer
Pages: XIII - XV

25 years frost research in Munich and Essen
Author(s): R. Auberg, R.E. Beddoe, H.-J. Keck
Pages: 1 - 12

Part One: Micro Structure and Pore Solution


Nano- and microstructure of Portland cement paste
Author(s): J. Stark, B. M÷ser
Pages: 15 - 28

Morphological analysis and modelling of cement structure
Author(s): J. Hu, P. Stroeven
Pages: 29 - 36

Structure formation of hardening cement pastes at freezing
Author(s): M. Sanitsky, H. Sobol, U. Marushchak
Pages: 37 - 44

The role of nanopores in concrete
Author(s): J. Adolphs
Pages: 45 - 52

Influence of surface properties on germ formation
Author(s): U. Dahme, M.J. Setzer
Pages: 53 - 59

Effects of carbonation to micro structure and pore solution
Author(s): O. Wowra
Pages: 61 - 68

Small angle neutron scattering as well as pore solution investigations of cement
Author(s): J. Tritthart, F. Hńu▀ler
Pages: 69 - 79

Study on hydration kinetics of C3S in NaNO2 solution at negative temperature
Author(s): H. Ba, Z. Huang, Z. Liu
Pages: 81 - 86

Single ion activities of unassociated chlorides in CaCl2 and CaCl2-NaOH-KOH solutions
Author(s): G. de Vera, A. Hidalgo, M.A Climent, C. Andrade, C. Alonso
Pages: 87 - 94

Part Two: Surface Science


Disjoining pressure of water films in frozen materials
Author(s): N.V. Churaev, V.D. Sobolev
Pages: 97 - 103

Freezing and melting of water in ordered nanoporous silica materials
Author(s): G.H. Findenegg, A. Schreiber
Pages: 105 - 114

Part Three: Frost Mechanisms


Mechanical damage and fatigue effects associated with freeze-thaw of materials
Author(s): G. Fagerlund
Pages: 117 - 132

Development of the micro-ice-lens model
Author(s): M.J. Setzer
Pages: 133 - 145

From freezing and thawing pore water pressures to concrete stresses
Author(s): V. Penttala
Pages: 147 - 160

Low-temperature phase transitions of pore water in hardened cement paste
Author(s): R.E. Beddoe
Pages: 161 - 168

Frost dilatation and pore system of hardened cement paste under different storage conditions
Author(s): M.J. Setzer, A. Liebrecht
Pages: 169 - 178

Salt frost scaling - interaction of transport mechanisms and ice formation in concrete
Author(s): M.T. Jepsen
Pages: 179 - 186

Analysis of heat flux and moisture transport in concrete during freezing and thawing
Author(s): S. Kasparek, M.J. Setzer
Pages: 187 - 195

A qualitative sequential frost deicing salt damage model based on experimental data
Author(s): J.P. Kaufmann
Pages: 197 - 204

A method to predict the frost-resistant properties of HPC under external load
Author(s): K,-R. Wu, A. Yan, W. Yao, D. Zhang
Pages: 205 - 211

Regularities of ice formation and estimation of frost attack danger
Author(s): A. Usherov-Marshak, O. Zlatkovski, V. Sopov
Pages: 213 - 221

Part Four: Damage Mechanisms


Simulation of damage and crack formation in the composite structure of concrete under freeze-thaw cycles
Author(s): T. H÷rsch, F.H. Wittmann
Pages: 225 - 234

Micromechanics model to predict macroscopic behaviour of concrete under frost action
Author(s): M. Mihashi, Z.Y. Zhou, S. Tada
Pages: 235 - 241

Hypotheses of frost destruction and fracture mechanics of concrete
Author(s): S.N. Leonovich, Y.V. Zaitsev
Pages: 243 - 251

Part Five: Test Methods and Experimental Observation


Application of CIF-Test in practise for reliable evaluation of frost resistance of concrete
Author(s): R. Auberg
Pages: 255 - 267

The role of aggregates in the CIF-Test
Author(s): P. Heine, M.J. Setzer
Pages: 269 - 276

Requirements for a test of frost resistance of concrete
Author(s): D. Janssen
Pages: 277 - 286

Water uptake, dilation and internal deterioration of concrete due to freezing-and-thawing
Author(s): L. Tang, P.-E. Petersson
Pages: 287 - 294

Investigation of frost resistance of cementless composite concrete by dilatometric way
Author(s): S.I. Pavlenko, P.G. Kuvshinov, T.M. Luhanina
Pages: 295 - 302

Freeze-thaw resistance of water permeable concrete
Author(s): Z. Wang, N. Saeki, T. Horiguchi, T. Shimura
Pages: 303 - 310

The evaluation of the freeze-thaw resistance of porous concrete carried out using different test methods
Author(s): M. Sugiyama
Pages: 311 - 316

Investigations of High-Performance Concrete under frost attack - Internal damage and water uptake
Author(s): S. Palecki, M.J. Setzer
Pages: 317 - 325

Freezing and thawing resistance of concretes with shrinkage reducing admixtures
Author(s): J. Bae, N.S. Berke, R.J. Hoopes, J. Malone
Pages: 327 - 333

Stress-strain behavior in tension and compression of concrete damaged by freezing and thawing cycles
Author(s): H. Muttaqin, N. Kouhei, S. Yasuhiko, U. Tamon
Pages: 335 - 342

The influence of hydraulic additions to cement on frost and de-icing salt resistance of concrete
Author(s): D. Janeva, J. Beslac, D. Sekulic, K. Mavar
Pages: 343 - 350

Development of complex admixture for winter concreting
Author(s): A. Usherov-Marshak, V. Sopov, A. Lihopud, N. Sinayko
Pages: 351 - 358

Assessing the freeze-thaw durability of surface treated concrete
Author(s): D.J. Cleland, L. Basheer
Pages: 359 - 366

Resistance to frost damage of concrete with various mix proportions under salty condition
Author(s): J. ZHANG, T. FUJIWARA
Pages: 367 - 374

Influence of hydrophobic treatment of young concrete on the resistance to early freeze-thaw and de-icing salt attack
Author(s): A. Frentzel
Pages: 375 - 383